Chandrayaan – India s lunar mission

October 16, 2008 at 12:31 pm | Posted in America, entertainment, explore, History, India, indian heritage, Information, news, science, USA, World | Leave a comment
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CHANDRAYAAN-1: India’s first mission to the Moon
India is all set to reach the moon and that too in its own way, literally! The first Moon mission, an unmanned remote-sensing satellite called Chandrayaan-I , is set for launch. The results of this initiative is which would a long way in realizing the value of our closest celestial body and the emergence of new possibilities. Few facts on Chandrayaan * This spacecraft weighs 1304 kg (590 initial orbit mass and 504 kg dry mass) * The estimated costs for this ambitious project would be INR 3.8 billion * The power generation would be through a canted single-sided solar array to provide required power, 700 W at peak. * During eclipse the spacecraft will be powered by Lithium ion (Li-Ion) batteries. * The spacecraft carries propellant for a mission life of 2 years. The mission aims to carry out high resolution mapping of topographic features in 3D, distribution of minerals and elemental chemical species, and look for water ice in its polar regions. ISRO hopes to launch Chandrayaan-1 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre near Shriharikota this year.

 “THE MOON” with the history of the early solar system etched on it beckons mankind from time immemorial to admire its marvels and discover its secrets. Understanding the moon provides a pathway to unravel the early evolution of the solar system and that of the planet earth.

Through the ages, the Moon, our closest celestial body has aroused curiosity in our mind much more than any other objects in the sky. This led to scientific study of the Moon, driven by human desire and quest for knowledge. This is also reflected in the ancient verse. Exploration of the moon got a boost with the advent of the space age and the decades of sixties and seventies saw a myriad of successful unmanned and manned missions to moon.Following this, a hiatus of about one and a half-decade followed. During this period we refined our knowledge about the origin and evolution of the moon and its place as a link to understand the early history of the Solar System and of the earth.   

However, new questions about lunar evolution also emerged and new possibilities of using the moon as a platform for further exploration of the solar system and beyond were formulated. Moon again became the prime target for exploration and a new renaissance of rejuvenated interest dawned. All the major space faring nations of the world started planning missions to explore the moon and also to utilize moon as a potential base for space exploration.
 
The idea of undertaking an Indian scientific mission to Moon was initially mooted in a meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1999 that was followed up by discussions in the Astronautical Society of India in 2000. Based on the recommendations made by the learned members of these forums, a National Lunar Mission Task Force was constituted by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Leading Indian scientists and technologists participated in the deliberations of the Task Force that provided an assessment on the feasibility of an Indian Mission to the Moon as well as dwelt on the focus of such a mission and its possible configuration.
 
The task force recommended that given the technical expertise of ISRO it will be extreme worthwhile to plan an Indian Mission to the Moon. It also provided specific inputs such as the primary scientific objectives of such a mission, plausible instruments to meet these objectives, launch and spacecraft technologies that need to be developed and suggested the need for setting up of a Deep Space Network (DSN) station in India for communication with the lunar orbiting spacecraft. The team also provided a provisional budgetary estimate.
 
The Study Report of the Task Team was discussed in April 2003 by a peer group of about 100 eminent Indian scientists representing various fields of planetary & space sciences, earth sciences, physics, chemistry, astronomy, astrophysics and engineering and communication sciences. After detailed discussions, it was unanimously recommended that India should undertake the Mission to Moon, particularly in view of the renowned international interest on moon with several exciting missions planned for the new millennium. In addition, such a mission will provide the needed thrust to basic science and engineering research in the country including new challenges to ISRO to go beyond the geostationary orbit. Further, such a project will also help bringing in young talents to the arena of fundamental research. The Academia, in particular, the university scientists would also find participation in such a project intellectually rewarding.
 
Subsequently, Government of India approved ISRO’s proposal for the first Indian Moon Mission, called Chandrayaan-1 in November 2003.

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Google’s First Android phone out

September 30, 2008 at 12:31 pm | Posted in America, entertainment, explore, India, Information, news, science, USA, World | 1 Comment
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The Google Android phone is here!

 On Tuesday, T-Mobile and Google announced the first-ever handset with Google’s new Android operating system.

Called the T-Mobile G1, it has both full touch-screen functionality, a QWERThe Google Android phonTY keyboard, a trackball for one-handed navigation, plus access to mobile Web applications like Google Maps Street View, Gmail, YouTube, and more.

The G1 is available for pre-order now in the US in limited quantities fot T-Mobile registered users.

It will be available in retail stores from October 22, for $179 with a two-year voice and data agreement.

It will be available in the UK beginning November and across Europe in early 2009.

The Android provides the phone’s operating system as well as a platform for the phone to run a variety of software programs.

Google wrote Android using open-source software, which means any programmer has access to the source code that makes Android tick and can write software that runs on any mobile phone using Android.

Unlike the iPhone, the G1 features a mini QWERTY keyboard, which is accessed by sliding the touch screen to the side. When the keyboard is used the screen’s orientation changes from vertical to horizontal. The G1 can open files created using Microsoft Word and Excel.

Google Maps:
With Google Maps G1 users can instantly view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local business and get driving directions, all from the phone’s easy-to-use touch interface.

The T-Mobile G1 also includes Google Maps Street View, allowing customers to explore cities at street-level virtually while on the go.

Not just this, Google Maps feature syncs with the built-in compass on the phone — an industry first — to allow users to view locations and navigate 360 degrees by simply moving the phone with their hand.

Communicating on the go:
The T-Mobile G1 features a rich HTML e-mail client, which seamlessly syncs your e-mail, calendar and contacts from Gmail as well as most other POP3 or IMAP e-mail services.

The T-Mobile G1 multitasks, so you can read a Web page while also downloading your e-mail in the background. It combines Instant Messaging support for Google Talk, as well as AOL, Yahoo! Messenger and Windows Live Messenger in the US.

With access to high-speed Web browsing and a 3-megapixel camera with photo-sharing capabilities, the T-Mobile G1 is ideal for balancing a busy lifestyle.

Embracing user-generated content: Customers can use the G1’s 3G and Wi-Fi connection to attach and share pictures over e-mail and MMS or download music from their favorite Web sites.

Built-in support for YouTube allows customers to enjoy YouTube’s originally created content.

Music:The Google Android phon
You can’t play iTunes music files on the G1. Instead, T-Mobile is offering its own music service through Amazon Music, which gives customers easy access to Amazon MP3, Amazon.com’s digital music download store.

G1 customers will also able to search, sample, purchase and download music from Amazon MP3 directly.

The T-Mobile G1 will be the first device with the Amazon MP3 mobile application pre-loaded.

Android market:
The T-Mobile G1 is the first phone to offer access to Android Market.

When the phone launches next month, dozens of unique, first-of-a-kind Android applications will be available for download on Android Market.

Doomsday collision set for early next week!

September 17, 2008 at 12:36 pm | Posted in America, entertainment, explore, History, India, Information, news, science, USA, World | Leave a comment
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The first collisions between subatomic particles will take place in the giant Large Hadron Collider (LHC) next week, among fears that it might create a doomsday-like scenario for our planet.

The LHC circulates particles in a 17-mile circumference underground tunnel straddling the French-Swiss border at The European Organization for Nuclear Research, near Geneva, Switzerland, known by the acronym CERN.

According to a report in Telegraph, although there was much uproar last week about the first particles – protons – to whirl around the LHC at a shade under the speed of light, the real aim of the exercise is to bring counter rotating beams of particles into collision in the four “eyes” – detectors – of the machine to recreate conditions not seen since just after the birth of the universe.

This is the aspect of the experiment that has triggered all the angst and hand-wringing by doomsayers and Jeremiahs, who fear that the collisions will mark the end of the world, as it tumbles into the gaping maw of a black hole.

These fears have been dismissed as nonsense by Dr Evans, along with scientists such as Prof Stephen Hawking, who say that the end of the world is not nigh.

The original plan was to take 31 days from the first proton beams circulating in the LHC to smashing protons for the first time.

“We were going along at a real good lick,” Dr Evans said of the days after particles first circulated.

But, the cryogenics that keep the great machine cooled went down on Friday, as a result of thunderstorms disrupting the power supply.

“We have had problems with the electricity supply for various reasons and the cryogenics is recovering from that, so we will not have a beam again, probably until Thursday morning,” said Dr Evans.

The team now hopes to achieve collisions at between one fifth and one tenth of the full energy in a few days.

“We are very confident that we can go quite quickly. The experiments have asked us for some early collisions, at low energy. If we get stable conditions, we will get there next week,” said Dr Evans.

The collisions will take place in the two general purpose detectors of the giant machine, called Atlas and CMS, though Dr Evans added that the team will also attempt collisions in Alice, which will study a “liquid” form of matter, called a quark-gluon plasma, that formed shortly after the Big Bang, and an experiment called LHCb, which will investigate the fate of antimatter in the wake of the Big Bang.

7 Amazing Holes – Don’t Dare to Miss this!

September 11, 2008 at 8:51 am | Posted in America, explore, History, news, science, tourism, Travel, USA, World | Leave a comment
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Looking at photos like these scares and fascinates me in equal doses. The sheer scale of these holes reminds you of just how tiny you are. Mirny Diamond Mine, Siberia. I’m pretty sure most people have seen this one. It’s an absolute beast and holds the title of largest open diamond mine in the world, at 525 metres deep with a top diameter of 1200 metres there’s even a no-fly zone above the hole due to a few helicopters being sucked in.

The red arrow in the photo below is pointing to a huge truck

Kimberley Big Hole – South Africa apparently the largest ever hand-dug excavation in the world, this 1097 metre deep mine yielded over 3 tonnes of diamonds before being closed in 1914.

The amount of earth removed by workers is estimated to total 22.5 million tonnes.

Glory Hole – Monticello Dam – A glory hole is used when a dam is at full capacity and water needs to be drained from the resevoir.

This is the glory hole belonging to monticello dam in california and it’s the largest in the world, its size enabling it to consume 14400 cubic feet of water every second.
The hole can be seen at the top middle of the photo above. if you were to jump in for some reason your slightly damp body would shoot out near the bottom of the dam (below).

Bingham Canyon Mine, Utah, this is supposedly the largest man-made excavation on earth. extraction began in 1863 and still continues today, the pit increasing in size constantly. in its current state the hole is 3/4 mile deep and 2.5 miles wide.

Great Blue Hole, Belize situated 60 miles off the mainland of belize is this incredible geographical phenomenon known as a blue hole. there are numerous blue holes around the world but none as stunning as this one.
at surface level the near perfectly circular hole is 1/4 mile wide, the depth in the middle reaching 145 metres. obviously the hole is a huge hit with divers. read more here.
Diavik Mine, Canada this incredible mine can be found 300km northeast of YellowKnife in Canada.
The mine is so huge and the area so remote that it even has its own airport with a runway large enough to accomodate a boeing 737. it also looks equally as cool when the surrounding water is frozen.
Sinkhole, Guatemala – a sinkhole is caused when water (usually rainwater or sewage) is soaked up by the earth on a large scale, resulting in the ground collapsing.
These photos are of a Sinkhole which occured early this year in Guatemala. The hole swallowed a dozen homes and killed at least 3 people.

Officials blamed the monster of a hole on a ruptured sewage pipe.

– Shantan

The “Big Bang” experiment triggers shock waves!

September 10, 2008 at 6:23 pm | Posted in America, explore, History, Information, science, USA, World | 2 Comments
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Concerns have been raised that turning on, the LHC could lead to the ultimate destruction of the earth and the universe, and hence the research should be stopped. However, all these negative speculations have been played down by CERN..

IF CRITICS are to be believed, the end of the universe will begin by the coming Wednesday, September 10, when the most powerful atom-smasher ever built comes into action, located 300 feet underground near the French-Swiss border. It will be the world’s biggest scientific experiment till date to know how the universe was born, speculations are rife that it will trigger the end of the world and the universe.

All this fuss is related to the experiment that will commence on September 10 when the physicists at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), located near Geneva, will switch on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is a $10 billion and a 17-mile long particle accelerator lying in a circular tunnel beneath the border of France and Switzerland. The moment it gets switched on, the atom-smasher will become a virtual time machine, revealing what happened when the universe came into existence 14 billion years ago.

One of the chief goals of the LHC experiment is to find the elusive Higgs boson, the only fundamental particle predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics that has not been directly observed. The Higgs boson plays a key role in explaining the origins of the mass in other elementary particles. They hope to shed some light on the invisible material that exists between particles known as “dark matter” as a little is known about it, which make upmost of the universe.

With the discovery of new particles, the scientists aim to recreate the conditions that existed a fraction of a second after the Big and provide vital clues to the building blocks of life. The scientists involved in this project have waited for this moment for two decades and they are on the verge of creating history, but the research team is against the protests and demonstrations by the critics who have dubbed this as a Doomsday test.

Concerns have been raised that turning on the LHC could lead to the ultimate destruction of the earth and the universe, and hence the research should be stopped. TV news channels and tabloids have come up with their own theories of mass destruction and end of life speculations, that have created an environment of uncertainty and unnecessary panic world wide. It has also been reported that some scientists working for CERN have been receiving threatening e-mails and text messages to stop from moving ahead with their dream project.

The critics are of the opinion that the world’s largest particle accelerator will produce fearsome entities that would result in energies being developed which will be powerful enough to create a runaway Black Hole that could consume the earth in no time. There have been even petitions in the Courts to put a break on this project on the ground of saving the earth and mankind. There have been two lawsuits, one American and another European, against this experiment, but their attempts have been rejected by the concerned Courts.

However, the group responsible for the experiment, CERN, says that these mini black holes will vanish as quickly as they are created. All these negative speculations have been played down by CERN and the whole issue has been validated as completely safe, with more dangerous cosmic rays constantly found in nature than could ever be produced by the machine. The head of PR, James Gillies apparently is inundated with people fearing for their lives, and said- “I find myself getting slightly angry with the fact that people have been driven to do what is nonsense. What we are doing is enriching humanity, not putting it at a risk.”

At the same time, the Safety Assessment Group, which has conducted an indepth study into the potential impact of the machine writes- “Each collision of a pair of protons in the LHC will release an amount of energy comparable to that of two colliding mosquitoes, so any black hole produced would be much smaller than those known to astrophysicists.” Another report termed this “end of the world rumor” as bogus and said that cosmic ray collisions are more energetic than those produced in the LHC, therefore LHC experiment shouldn’t be looked up as a fear.

CERN also issued a report revealing that, even if a black hole is to form, it would rapidly evaporate due to Hawking Radiation. The CERN director general, Robert Aymar, said that the LHC will enable us to study in detail what nature is doing all around us and any suggestion that it might pose a risk to earth and mankind is a pure fiction.

Now, if the people involved in the project come out with such clarifications, the doubt should probably get cleared because they are the ones who will be closest to the site of danger, if there is any.
Every research or experiment has its own pros and cons and if we sit back for the fear of “something”, then we are not going to venture into new horizons. Had the earlier researchers and general people would have thought on the same line of safe passage, then we would have still been living on stone edge.

Let us hope that something fruitful comes out of the expedition and the fear of calamity be drowned. And if there is no such calamity, as is feared, then we will probably learn all sorts of exciting new things about the nature of the universe. Exactly what comes out of these collisions, and how it behaves, will hopefully make us more knowledgeable and the new findings may be utilized for th betterment of life.

Earth will not be gobbled up by black hole during big bang experiment, reassure scientists

September 10, 2008 at 6:05 pm | Posted in America, news, science, USA, World | Leave a comment
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The Earth is not at risk of being sucked into a black hole, a safety report into the world’s most powerful particle physics experiment has found.
Scientists at Europe’s CERN lab plan to use the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to smash highly-energised protons together at super-fast speeds to produce miniature versions of the Big Bang.
The collisions will create temperatures more than 100,000 times hotter than the heart of the sun.
The Large Hadron Collider straddles the French and Swiss borders. Scientists hope it will reveal what happened to particles moments after the big bang
The machine will be operated undergound in a 27km long tunnel near Geneva and detectors will trace and analyse the particles that emerge from the collisions.
Physicists hope it will help answer profound questions such as ‘What is the origin of mass?’ and ‘What is 96 per cent of the universe made up of?’
But some critics fear the collider could create microscopic black holes that could swell and end up eating the whole world.
However, the safety review from the European Organization for Nuclear Research said there was no ‘conceivable danger’ of this.
Black holes drag in matter from their surroundings. Some critics fear the collider could create a miniature black hole that could swell and swallow the Earth
Although the researchers admitted the collider will achieve energy levels no other man made technology has created before, they said natural cosmic-ray collisions had already created higher energies with no ill effects.
‘Nature has already generated on Earth as many collisions as about a million LHC experiments – and the planet still exists,’ they said.
The review panel added that astronomical black holes are much heavier than anything that could be produced in the collider.
They said even if the well-established properties of gravity were disproved and microscopic black holes were created – these particles would disintegrate immediately giving them no time to draw in outside matter.
The strange world of strangelets

The report also addressed concerns raised in 2000 that the machine could produce hypothetical particles called strangelets. These strange particles could turn nuclei in ordinary atoms into strange matter – destroying the Earth in a doomsday scenario.
In 2003, Dr Adrian Kent, from the University of Cambridge, argued that scientists had not adequately calculated the strangelets risk.
But the team led by theoretical physicist John Ellis said previous experiments had failed to produce these strangelets, and the heat produced by the collider would make their creation even less likely.
They concluded: ‘There is no basis for any concerns about the consequences of new particles or forms of matter that could possibly be produced by the LHC.’
The new document is an update of the analysis carried out in 2003 into the safety of the collider by an independent team of scientists.
The LHC was due to switch on in November 2007 but the start-up has been postponed several times. The first delay occurred after an accident in March 2007 when one of the 9,300 magnets exploded during testing and the facility was evacuated.
Further delays occurred after plaintiffs requested an injunction against the LHC’s switch-on from the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii over safety fears.

10 September 2008 | Tests Clear Way for Big Bang Experiment | Large Hadron Collider

September 9, 2008 at 6:12 pm | Posted in America, entertainment, History, Information, news, science, USA, World | 15 Comments
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Tests have cleared the way for the start-up next month of an experiment to restage a mini-version underground of the “Big Bang” which created the universe 15 billion years ago, the project chief said on Monday.
Lyn Evans of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) said weekend trials in the vast underground LHC machine in which the particle-smashing experiment will take place over the coming months and years “went without a hitch.“
“We look forward to a resounding success when we make our first attempt to send a beam all the way round the LHC,” said Evans, who heads the multinational team of scientists that shaped the project and the machine, the Large Hadron Collider
The final tests involved pumping a single bunch of energy particles from the project’s accelerator into the 27-km (17-mile) beam pipe of the collider and steering them counter- clockwise around it for about 3 kms (2 miles).
Earlier in the month a clockwise trial in the LHC — which runs deep under French and Swiss territory between the Jura mountains and Lake Geneva — had been equally successful, CERN said.
The LHC team now plans to send a full particle beam all the way around the collider pipe in one direction on September 10 as a prelude to sending beams in both directions and smashing them together later in the year.
That collision, in which both particle clusters will be traveling at the speed of light, will be monitored on computers at CERN and laboratories around the world by scientists looking for, among other things, a particle that made life possible.
The elusive particle, which has been dubbed the Higgs Bosom after Scottish physicist Peter Higgs who first postulated nearly 50 years ago that it must exist, is thought to be the mysterious factor that holds matter together.
Recreating a “Big Bang,” which most scientists believe is the only explanation of an expanding universe, ought to show how stars and planets came together out of the primeval chaos that followed, the CERN team believes.
TIME OF EXPERIMENT – 1:30 a.m. CDT on Wednesday, Sept. 10,2008
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